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跑向北极的南方熊

人生就是一个人的旅行,而我要飞起来

 
 
 

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我对构词法的总结  

2009-03-29 19:52:16|  分类: 我的作品 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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                                                             WORD-FORMATION

There are mainly two processes of word-formation, the major one and the minor one. The major processes are three, namely, compounding, derivation and conversion. The minor processes are eight, including acronym, blending, clipping, words from proper names, back-formation, reduplication, neo-classical formation and miscellaneous.

Ⅰ.The three major processes

1.      Compounding or composition

A.    Definition

Compound means that combines several words to form a new word and then the new word expresses a new single idea. Compounds are written in solid, hyphenated or open ways, and also sometimes they have a compound accent which is different from normal phrase accent.

B.     Classification

(1)   Noun compounds

        E.g.: afterthought; copyedit (also copy-edit); policymaker; grownup (also grown-up); frontline (also front line); frame-up; e-mail (also email).

        (2) Adjective compounds

        E.g.: yearlong; high-tech; policymaking (also policy-making); online; absent-minded; empty-handed; so called; left hand.

        (3)Verb compounds

        E.g.: back up; wind up; check off; hand out; call up; warm up; spot-check.

    2. Derivation or affixation

    A. Definition

      In this process, the new word is created by adding a prefix, or suffix, or both,     

       to the base.

C.     Classification

(1)   Prefixation

E.g.: abate; unable; maladapted; postern; biographic; turbulent; semicircle.

(2) Suffixation

E.g.: sensation; backing; damnable; earful; generality; habitation; zoology.

3. Conversion

A. Definition: Conversion is a process that a word of a certain word-class is shifted into a word of another word-class without the addition of an affix.

B. Types

  (1) Nounàverb conversion

  E.g.: table n.à to table (to postpone discussion of a bill or suggestion until future time);

       pride n.à to pride (to take pride in something);

       carpet n.àto carpet ( to cover something);

       floor n.àto floor (to press accelerator of a car to the floor in order to speed up; or to astonish someone);

        flag n.à to flag (to give signal for communication).

(2)   Verbànoun conversion

E.g.: experience; feel; fear; hope; call; visit; increase; turn; cover

(3) Adjectiveàverb conversion

E.g.: black(ed)(to make black); open; slow(ing);

和谐;春风又绿江南岸;

(3)   Adjectiveànoun conversion

E.g.: worst; more; cutie; the old: the jobless; a Chinese favorite

 Ⅱ. The eight minor processes

1.      Initialisms and acronyms

A.    Definition

Initialisms is a type of shortening, using the first letters of words to form a proper name, a term, or a phrase. And it is pronounced letter by letter.

       Acronyms differ from initialisms in that they are pronounced as words rather as sequence of letters.

B.     Types

(1)   Initialisms

         E.g.: CEO; CFO; PICC; EMS; GPS;

         (2) Acronyms

         E.g.: radar (radio detecting and ranging); laser; UNESCO;

Kiss (keep it smile, stupid--advice often given to speakers and writers.)

NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard"--for a person who opposes anything scheduled to be built near his or her residence.)

2.      Clipping

A.    Definition

It means to delete one or more syllables from a word, which is also available in its full form.

B.     Classification

(1)   Back clipping

        E.g.: Liz, Ron, Rob (names); fax (facsimile); maths; dorm

        (2) Front clipping

        E.g.: phone, copter, bus

        (3) Front and back clipping

        E.g.: jams; bike; mike(microphone); coke(Coca Cola); pram(perambulator)

        (4)Phrase clipping

        E.g.: pub(public house) ;zoo(zoological garden); Gents(gentleman’s room)

     3. Blending

     A. Definition

       Blending is a process that a new word is formed by combining the meanings and sounds of two words.

     B. Examples

       (1) because(by+cause) ; fortnight(fourteen+ nights); o’clock(of(the)+clock); paratroops(parachute+troops); bleep(blankout+beep)

      (2)dumbfound(dumb+confound);skyjack(sky+hijack); workaholic(work+alcoholic); blotch(blot+botch).

      (3) flare(flame+glare); bash(bang+smash); intercom(internal+communication)               

         waddle(wade+toddle); prissy(prim+sissy)

4. Back-formation

A.    Definition    

It is a term used to refer to a type of word-formation by which a shorter word is coined by the deletion of a supposed affix from a longer form already present in the language.

B.     Examples

Walker; runner; televise; stage manage; clo(clothes)

     5. Words from proper names

A. Definition

       In this way the words come from all sources, from names of scientists, politicians and statesmen to trademarks, and place names.  

B. Classifications

(1)   Words from the names of scientists

         E.g.: Pascal(Pa); ohm; volt; farad; kulun

         (2) Words from the names of politicians and statesmen

         E.g.: Washington D. C ; obamamentum; OK(美国前总统Martin Van Buren的昵称Old Kinderhook有关); Oscar; Pulitzer;  Orwellian; dickens (魔鬼)

         (3) Words from the names of place

         E.g.:  afghan; turkey; china; japan

         (4)Words from trademarks

         E.g.: coca-cola; kodak; xerox. 

         (5) Words from literature

         E.g.: Uncle Tom; Catch-22; Godfather

     6. Reduplication

     A. Definition

       In this way, the new word is created by the repetition of one word or of two almost identical words with a change in the vowel’s or of two almost identical words with a change in the initial consonants.

     B. Examples

       bling-bling, boob-tube; hip-hop; okey-dokey, wee-wee; zig-zag; bee's knees, heebie-jeebies

     7. Neoclassical formation

     A. Definition

       It means the process by which new words are formed from elements derived from Latin and Greek.

     B. Example

       Psychologie, Psychopath; logisch

       Log in Psychologie, Logopäde, logisch

       Path in Psychopath, Pathologe, pathogen

     8. Miscellaneous

     Examples: bitterpart; singleton; daymare; zap; gazump.

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